Antarctica is Earth’s southernmost continent, overlying the South Pole. It is situated in the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is completely surrounded by the Southern Ocean. The nearest land mass is South America at 965 km.
Its area is close to 14 million km2. Antarctica is the fifth largest continent after Asia, Africa, North America and South America. It is the coldest, driest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. The minimum recorded surface temperature on the planet, −89.2 °C, was at the Soviet research station Vostok in Antarctica on 21 July 1983. And also it has 98% of its total area covered by ice. The mean thickness of the ice sheet is 1829 m and the maximum thickness has been measured as 4776 m. While most of the ice in East Antarctica is on bed rock, in West Antarctica a majority of it floats on water. Due to accumulation of ice over millions of years, the continent has been depressed by about 600 m on average.
The population of Antarctica has always been small- even today it is comprised mostly of scientists and students, numbering around 5,000. It has a University, while the University is consequently also small in size, its status and reputation in the world far outweighs its relative proportion of the population. The students and specialists who have walked these halls have been the best in their fields, adding to the prestige of the University throughout the decades.
University of Antarctica
|1)||University of Antarctica|
Several governments maintain permanent manned research stations on the continent. The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 1,000 in winter to about 5,000 in the summer, giving it a population density between 70 and 350 inhabitants per million square kilometres (180 and 900 per million square miles) at these times. Many of the stations are staffed year-round, the winter-over personnel typically arriving from their home countries for a one-year assignment. An Orthodox church—Trinity Church, opened in 2004 at the Russian Bellingshausen Station—is manned year-round by one or two priests, who are similarly rotated every year.
Moreover, Council Of Managers of National Antarctica Programs (COMNAP) currently brings together all the National Antarctic Programs of 30 countries from all around the world. See the Centres below, and for Operators website links, click here.
|Aboa||Finland||Finnish Antarctic Research Program||Queen Maud Land|
|Almirante Brown Antarctic Base||Argentina||Argentine Antarctic Institute||Antarctic Peninsula|
|Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station||United States||United States Antarctic Program||Geographical South Pole|
|Artigas Base||Uruguay||Uruguayan Antarctic Institute||King George Island|
|Asuka Station||Japan||National Institute of Polar Research
|Queen Maud Land|
|Bellingshausen Station||Russia||Russian Antarctic Expedition||King George Island|
|Bharati||India||Indian Antarctic Program||Larsemann Hills|
|Casey Station||Australia||Australian Antarctic Division||Vincennes Bay|
|Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station||Brazil||Brazilian Antarctic Program||King George Island|
|Dumont d’Urville Station||France||IPEV (Institut Polaire Français Paul Émile Victor)||Adélie Land|
|Great Wall Station||China||Polar Research Institute of China||King George Island|
|Halley Research Station||United Kingdom||British Antarctic Survey ||Brunt Ice Shelf|
|Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station||Poland||Polish Academy of Sciences||King George Island|
|Jang Bogo Station||South Korea||Korea Antarctic Research Program||Terra Nova Bay|
|Jinnah Antarctic Station||Pakistan||Pakistan Antarctic Programme||Sør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land|
|Juan Carlos I Station||Spain||CSIC
Laboratory, investigation and meteorogical station.
|South Bay, Livingston Island|
|King Sejong Station||South Korea||Korea Antarctic Research Program||King George Island|
|Law-Racoviță Station||Romania||Romanian Polar Research Institute||Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land|
|Machu Picchu Base||Peru||Peruvian Antarctic Institute (INANPE) ||Admiralty Bay, King George Island|
|Maldonado Base||Ecuador||Ecuadorian Antarctic Institute||Greenwich Island|
|Mario Zucchelli Station||Italy||National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA) with the collaboration of ENEA and CNRresearch
||Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea|
|Mendel Polar Station||Czech Republic||Masaryk University||James Ross Island|
|Neumayer-Station III||Germany||Alfred Wegener Institute||Atka Bay|
|Princess Elisabeth Antarctica||Belgium||Belgium Polar Secretariat
Energy-passive research station.
|Queen Maud Land|
|Profesor Julio Escudero Base||Chile||Chilean Antarctic Institute||King George Island|
|SANAE IV (South African National Antarctic Expedition)||South Africa||South African National Antarctic Programme||Vesleskarvet in Queen Maud Land|
|St. Kliment Ohridski Base||Bulgaria||Bulgarian Antarctic Institute
|Emona Anchorage, Livingston Island|
|Scott Base||New Zealand||Antarctica New Zealand||Ross Island|
|Svea Research Station||Sweden||Swedish Polar Research Secretariat||Queen Maud Land|
|Tor Station||Norway||Norwegian Polar Institute||Queen Maud Land|
|Wasa Research Station||Sweden||Swedish Polar Research Secretariat||Queen Maud Land|
|Vernadsky Research Base||Ukraine||National Antarctic Scientific Center||Galindez Island|