Antarctica is Earth’s southernmost continent, overlying the South Pole. It is situated in the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is completely surrounded by the Southern Ocean. The nearest land mass is South America at 965 km.

Its area is close to 14 million km2. Antarctica is the fifth largest continent after Asia, Africa, North America and South America. It is the coldest, driest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. The minimum recorded surface temperature on the planet, −89.2 °C, was at the Soviet research station Vostok in Antarctica on 21 July 1983. And also it has 98% of its total area covered by ice. The mean thickness of the ice sheet is 1829 m and the maximum thickness has been measured as 4776 m. While most of the ice in East Antarctica is on bed rock, in West Antarctica a majority of it floats on water. Due to accumulation of ice over millions of years, the continent has been depressed by about 600 m on average.

The population of Antarctica has always been small- even today it is comprised mostly of scientists and students, numbering around 5,000. It has a University, while the University is consequently also small in size, its status and reputation in the world far outweighs its relative proportion of the population. The students and specialists who have walked these halls have been the best in their fields, adding to the prestige of the University throughout the decades.

University of Antarctica

1) University of Antarctica

Research Stations

Several governments maintain permanent manned research stations on the continent. The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 1,000 in winter to about 5,000 in the summer, giving it a population density between 70 and 350 inhabitants per million square kilometres (180 and 900 per million square miles) at these times. Many of the stations are staffed year-round, the winter-over personnel typically arriving from their home countries for a one-year assignment. An Orthodox church—Trinity Church, opened in 2004 at the Russian Bellingshausen Station—is manned year-round by one or two priests, who are similarly rotated every year.

Moreover, Council Of Managers of National Antarctica Programs (COMNAP) currently brings together all the National Antarctic Programs of 30 countries from all around the world. See the Centres below, and for Operators website links, click here.

Base Countries Operators
Situation
Aboa Finland Finland Finnish Antarctic Research Program Queen Maud Land
Almirante Brown Antarctic Base Argentina Argentina Argentine Antarctic Institute Antarctic Peninsula
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station United States United States United States Antarctic Program Geographical South Pole
Artigas Base Uruguay Uruguay Uruguayan Antarctic Institute King George Island
Asuka Station Japan Japan National Institute of Polar Research
unmanned observation
Queen Maud Land
Bellingshausen Station Russia Russia Russian Antarctic Expedition King George Island
Bharati India India Indian Antarctic Program Larsemann Hills
Casey Station Australia Australia Australian Antarctic Division Vincennes Bay
Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station Brazil Brazil Brazilian Antarctic Program King George Island
Dumont d’Urville Station France France IPEV (Institut Polaire Français Paul Émile Victor) Adélie Land
Great Wall Station China China Polar Research Institute of China King George Island
Halley Research Station United Kingdom United Kingdom British Antarctic Survey [17] Brunt Ice Shelf
Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station Poland Poland Polish Academy of Sciences King George Island
Jang Bogo Station South Korea South Korea Korea Antarctic Research Program Terra Nova Bay
Jinnah Antarctic Station Pakistan Pakistan Pakistan Antarctic Programme Sør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land
Juan Carlos I Station Spain Spain CSIC
Laboratory, investigation and meteorogical station.[18]
South Bay, Livingston Island
King Sejong Station South Korea South Korea Korea Antarctic Research Program King George Island
Law-Racoviță Station Romania Romania Romanian Polar Research Institute Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land
Machu Picchu Base Peru Peru Peruvian Antarctic Institute (INANPE) [19] Admiralty Bay, King George Island
Maldonado Base Ecuador Ecuador Ecuadorian Antarctic Institute Greenwich Island
Mario Zucchelli Station Italy Italy National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA) with the collaboration of ENEA and CNRresearch
Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea
Mendel Polar Station Czech Republic Czech Republic Masaryk University James Ross Island
Neumayer-Station III Germany Germany Alfred Wegener Institute Atka Bay
Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Belgium Belgium Belgium Polar Secretariat
Energy-passive research station.
Queen Maud Land
Profesor Julio Escudero Base Chile Chile Chilean Antarctic Institute King George Island
SANAE IV (South African National Antarctic Expedition) South Africa South Africa South African National Antarctic Programme Vesleskarvet in Queen Maud Land
St. Kliment Ohridski Base Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgarian Antarctic Institute
Biological research,
Emona Anchorage, Livingston Island
Scott Base New Zealand New Zealand Antarctica New Zealand Ross Island
Svea Research Station Sweden Sweden Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land
Tor Station Norway Norway Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land
Wasa Research Station Sweden Sweden Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land
Vernadsky Research Base Ukraine Ukraine National Antarctic Scientific Center Galindez Island
 
 
 
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